I will review the concept of duality in quantum systems from the 2D Ising model to superconformal field theories in higher dimensions. Using some of these latter theories, I will explain how a generalized concept of duality emerges: these are dualities not between full theories but between algebraically well-defined sub-sectors of strikingly different theories.

# Forthcoming Seminars

Please note that the list below only shows forthcoming events, which may not include regular events that have not yet been entered for the forthcoming term. Please see the past events page for a list of all seminar series that the department has on offer.

Abstract:

We present a numerical investigation of stochastic transport for the damped and driven incompressible 2D Euler fluid flows. According to Holm (Proc Roy Soc, 2015) and Cotter et al. (2017), the principles of transformation theory and multi-time homogenisation, respectively, imply a physically meaningful, data-driven approach for decomposing the fluid transport velocity into its drift and stochastic parts, for a certain class of fluid flows. We develop a new methodology to implement this velocity decomposition and then numerically integrate the resulting stochastic partial differential equation using a finite element discretisation. We show our numerical method is consistent.

Numerically, we perform the following analyses on this velocity decomposition. We first perform uncertainty quantification tests on the Lagrangian trajectories by comparing an ensemble of realisations of Lagrangian trajectories driven by the stochastic differential equation, and the Lagrangian trajectory driven by the ordinary differential equation. We then perform uncertainty quantification tests on the resulting stochastic partial differential equation by comparing the coarse-grid realisations of solutions of the stochastic partial differential equation with the ``true solutions'' of the deterministic fluid partial differential equation, computed on a refined grid. In these experiments, we also investigate the effect of varying the ensemble size and the number of prescribed stochastic terms. Further experiments are done to show the uncertainty quantification results "converge" to the truth, as the spatial resolution of the coarse grid is refined, implying our methodology is consistent. The uncertainty quantification tests are supplemented by analysing the L2 distance between the SPDE solution ensemble and the PDE solution. Statistical tests are also done on the distribution of the solutions of the stochastic partial differential equation. The numerical results confirm the suitability of the new methodology for decomposing the fluid transport velocity into its drift and stochastic parts, in the case of damped and driven incompressible 2D Euler fluid flows. This is the first step of a larger data assimilation project which we are embarking on. This is joint work with Colin Cotter, Dan Crisan, Darryl Holm and Igor Shevchenko.

We study Brownian motion and stochastic parallel transport on Perelman's almost Ricci flat manifold, whose dimension depends on a parameter $N$ unbounded from above. By taking suitable projections we construct sequences of space-time Brownian motion and stochastic parallel transport whose limit as $N\to \infty$ are the corresponding objects for the Ricci flow. In order to make precise this process of passing to the limit, we study the martingale problems for the Laplace operator on Perelman’s manifold and for the horizontal Laplacian on the corresponding orthonormal frame bundle.

As an application, we see how the characterizations of two-sided bounds on the Ricci curvature established by A. Naber applied to Perelman's manifold lead to the inequalities that characterize solutions of the Ricci flow discovered by Naber and Haslhofer.

This is joint work with Robert Haslhofer.

(joint work with Françoise Dal'Bo and Andrea Sambusetti)

Given a finitely generated group G acting properly on a metric space X, the exponential growth rate of G with respect to X measures "how big" the orbits of G are. If H is a subgroup of G, its exponential growth rate is bounded above by the one of G. In this work we are interested in the following question: what can we say if H and G have the same exponential growth rate? This problem has both a combinatorial and a geometric origin. For the combinatorial part, Grigorchuck and Cohen proved in the 80's that a group Q = F/N (written as a quotient of the free group) is amenable if and only if N and F have the same exponential growth rate (with respect to the word length). About the same time, Brooks gave a geometric interpretation of Kesten's amenability criterion in terms of the bottom of the spectrum of the Laplace operator. He obtained in this way a statement analogue to the one of Grigorchuck and Cohen for the deck automorphism group of the cover of certain compact hyperbolic manifolds. These works initiated many fruitful developments in geometry, dynamics and group theory. We focus here one the class of Gromov hyperbolic groups and propose a framework that encompasses both the combinatorial and the geometric point of view. More precisely we prove that if G is a hyperbolic group acting properly co-compactly on a metric space X which is either a Cayley graph of G or a CAT(-1) space, then the growth rate of H and G coincide if and only if H is co-amenable in G. In addition if G has Kazhdan property (T) we prove that there is a gap between the growth rate of G and the one of its infinite index subgroups.

We provide in this work a robust solution theory for random rough differential equations of mean field type

$$

dX_t = V\big( X_t,{\mathcal L}(X_t)\big)dt + \textrm{F}\bigl( X_t,{\mathcal L}(X_t)\bigr) dW_t,

$$

where $W$ is a random rough path and ${\mathcal L}(X_t)$ stands for the law of $X_t$, with mean field interaction in both the drift and diffusivity. Propagation of chaos results for large systems of interacting rough differential equations are obtained as a consequence, with explicit convergence rate. The development of these results requires the introduction of a new rough path-like setting and an associated notion of controlled path. We use crucially Lions' approach to differential calculus on Wasserstein space along the way. This is a joint work with I. Bailleul and R. Catellier.

Joint work with I. Bailleul (Rennes) and R. Catellier (Nice)

I will present a recent result on the structural stability of 3-D axisymmetric subsonic flows with nonzero swirl for the steady compressible Euler–Poisson system in a cylinder supplemented with non-small boundary data. A special Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity field is introduced for 3-D axisymmetric flow with a nonzero swirl (=angular momentum density) component. This talk is based on a joint work with S. Weng (Wuhan University, China).

Algebraic quantum field theories (AQFTs) are traditionally described as functors that assign algebras (of observables) to spacetime regions. These functors are required to satisfy a list of physically motivated axioms such as commutativity of the multiplication for spacelike separated regions. In this talk we will show that AQFTs can be described as algebras over a colored operad. This operad turns out to be interesting as it describes an interpolation between non-commutative and commutative algebraic structures. We analyze our operad from a homotopy theoretical perspective and determine a suitable resolution that describes the commutative behavior up to coherent homotopies. We present two concrete constructions of toy-models of algebras over the resolved operad in terms of (i) forming cochains on diagrams of simplicial sets (or stacks) and (ii) orbifoldization of equivariant AQFTs.

With the advent of large-scale data and the concurrent development of robust scientific tools to analyze them, important discoveries are being made in a wider range of scientific disciplines than ever before. A field of research that has gained substantial attention recently is the analytical, large-scale study of human behavior, where many analytical and statistical techniques are applied to various behavioral data from online social media, markets, and mobile communication, enabling meaningful strides in understanding the complex patterns of humans and their social actions.

The importance of such research originates from the social nature of humans, an essential human nature that clearly needs to be understood to ultimately understand ourselves. Another essential human nature is that they are creative beings, continually expressing inspirations or emotions in various physical forms such as a picture, sound, or writing. As we are successfully probing the social behaviors humans through science and novel data, it is natural and potentially enlightening to pursue an understanding of the creative nature of humans in an analogous way. Further, what makes such research even more potentially beneficial is that human creativity has always been in an interplay of mutual influence with the scientific and technological advances, being supplied with new tools and media for creation, and in return providing valuable scientific insights.

In this talk I will present two recent ongoing works on the mathematical analysis of color contrast in painting and measuring novelty in piano music.

In oil and gas reservoir simulation, standard preconditioners involve solving a restricted pressure system with AMG. Initially designed for isothermal models, this approach is often used in the thermal case. However, it does not incorporate heat diffusion or the effects of temperature changes on fluid flow through viscosity and density. We seek to develop preconditioners which consider this cross-coupling between pressure and temperature. In order to study the effects of both pressure and temperature on fluid and heat flow, we first consider a model of non-isothermal single phase flow through porous media. By focusing on single phase flow, we are able to isolate the properties of the pressure-temperature subsystem. We present a numerical comparison of different preconditioning approaches including block preconditioners.

A law for a group G is a non-trivial equation satisfied by all tuples of elements in G. We study the length of the shortest law holding in a finite group. We produce new short laws holding (a) in finite simple groups of Lie type and (b) simultaneously in all finite groups of small order. As an application of the latter we obtain a new lower bound on the residual finiteness growth of free groups. This talk is based on joint work with Andreas Thom.